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The international technology trade forms

Time:2014-03-13 Hit:192

The international technology trade forms

1. Licensing:

Licensing trade is the patentee or the trademark owner or proprietary technology owner, as the licensor to the licensee (licensor) (licensee) authorize some certain rights, allowing the licensee of the technical implementation, manufacturing, sales of products, and the licensee pays a certain amount of remuneration to the licensor. There are three basic types of licensing trade: the patent license, trademark license and know-how transfer (permission). In technology trade, such three ways such as pure patent to or simple trademark license or pure proprietary technology transfer, but using two or three forms are more often.

2. Franchising:

Franchising contract (Franchising) is developed in the recent twenty or thirty years as a new type of commercial technology transfer contract. Franchise is to use an enterprise’s successful experience, its trademark, trade names, service marks, patents, proprietary technology,  the method of operation, management experience, transferring to another a technology transfer contract, the latter has a right to use the patent, trademark, trade names, service marks, proprietary technology and management experience, but must pay a certain amount of fee to the former (Franchise Fee).

 The enterprises are not a branch or subsidiary of the authorized person. They are independent, self-financing enterprises. It does not guarantee that the companies must be able to gain profit. The franchise contract is a contract for a long time; it can be applied to commercial and service company too.

3. Advisory services:

Consulting is between employers and engineering consulting firm, it shall be the responsibility of the consulting firm to employers of putting forward suggestions or solutions. The scope of such service is very wide, such as project feasibility study, technical scheme and review, bidding, producing process or product improvement, equipment purchase, project supervision, etc.

In developing countries, technical strength is usually insufficient, hiring a foreign engineering consulting firm providing consulting services, may avoid detours or waste of money. with its rich knowledge of science and technology sources, the consulting firm can assist the employer to select advanced applicable technology, find a more reliable technology supplier, to obtain good quality machinery and equipment at a reasonable price. Although employers have to pay a lot of consulting fees, it will save them a lot of time.

Consulting fees may be generally calculated as a lump sum price. Generally speaking, consulting fees is equivalent to about 5% of the total project investment.

4. Technical service and assistance:

Technology transfer includes not only public technical knowledge but also include a transfer of secret technical knowledge and experience, the technical service and assistance often play a key role in the success of the project. As technical knowledge and experience is hard to be taught in writing, the teaching method of demonstration is usually in need, as a result, the technical service and assist is indispensable in technology transfer deals. It may be included in the technology transfer agreement, also may be used as a specific program, signed in a separate contract. There are two ways of providing technical services: the recipient sending out their own technical personnel and workers, to the factory or the supplier to use its technology factory training practice; or the supplier send experts or technical personnel to the factory of the recipient.

5. Contracted projects:      

Engineering contracting, also known as "turnkey" project, is the entrusted project contractor (contractor) to each task to complete a project under specific conditions, which is responsible for the engineering design, civil construction, providing machinery and equipment, construction installation, raw material supply, providing technical, training personnel, production test and quality management of all process equipment and technology.

Engineering contracting is a comprehensive way of international economic cooperation, is also a way of international labour service cooperation.




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